Cyber-physical systems

The cyber-physical systems are commonly abbreviated as CPS.

They have a plethora of definitions, but manly

  • they are understood as systems combining
    • interaction (like control, scheduling, interplay) between computational and physical aspects (like processes, resources)
    • communication in a networking or multi-agent context
  • CPS is considered by many as a buzzword, in the line of a related series of buzzwords: embedded systems (ES), pervasive systems, ubiquitous computing, smart dust
  • in our view, using a programming metaphor,


  • also, despite its symbolical definitions, it is an applications area, including: transportation, electric cars, chemical engineering,…
  • These characteristics raise serious challenges to the traditional systems engineering approaches. For example, a common modelling and foundation theory should be very abstract in order to be applicable to so many and different areas. The same time, these approach should be constructive and specific enough to be useful in an application domain.
  • It is very unfortunate that a large mass of researchers (including some very prestigious ones) have transformed CPS into an area of academic and research propaganda.  They just replaced by CPS the old terms like ES or pervasive systems in their papers and continue their old line of research, with no adaptation to the specifics of CPS. In such context, CPS ceased to be a new discipline.
  • Considering the above, our believe is that CPS should develop on sub-classes of systems, i.e. categories of CPS that share some common properties or some approaches that focus on certain aspects.
  • For the reasons exposed above, we have introduced the

Contigenous   Systems


©Marius and Manuela Bujorianu, September 2017